In our video skit that we made, we had two attribution errors mentioned, the fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) and the self-serving bias. FAE is when people tend to over-value dispositional (internal) factors rather than situational (external) factors. The second attribution error is the self-serving bias, this is when individuals attribute their successes to dispositional factors while attributing their failures to situational factors. (more definitions are listed below)

Fundamental Attribution Error

Definition:
describes the tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations for the observed behaviors of others while under-valuing situational explanations for those behaviors

Study:
The first error in the video is FAE and one study that incorporates this error is a study conducted by Jones and Harris (1967). The researchers asked the participants to read a pro essay about Castro. The goals for the students were to figure out the true attitude of the author. The results showed that students inferred “the essay writer’s true attitude toward Castro was more positive than they would have inferred it to be had they not seen the essay and known only that the writer was a typical fellow student”. The participants however did not consider the situational aspect of the paper, that the professor had prompted that the student write a pro-essay. They over-estimated that the paper written was due to internal (dispositional) aspects. Over-all the participants “overestimated the influence of a particular internal cause (the writer’s belief about Castro) compared to the influence of another, equally internal cause (the writer’s desire to please the instructor).

Self-Serving Bias

Definition:
"Tendency for people to take greater personal responsibility for positive outcomes than for negative ones" (take responsibility for successes - due to disposition; negative outcomes - due to situation).

Study:
In a study by Elizabeth Posey and Randolph A. Smith from Ouachita Baptist University called The Self-Serving Bias in Children, 36 second graders (20 male and 16 female) worked with a same-sex partner to complete an academic task. The second grader groups were split up so that half of the pairs were friends, and half of them were not friends. The students had three minutes to work on the worksheet and that they would be graded as a group, and not individually. The results of the study showed that there is a significant correlation between the relationship between the two members of the pair and the grade they received. It showed that a pair that did not have friends in it were more likely to give a self-serving response, while if it was a pair that were friends they were more likely to give a non-self-serving response.