For each term below, contribute a unique idea (a definition, an example, an image, a video, a link to a relevant article or other web source, or other media) that helps us understand the term/concept. Be sure your contribution relates to the psychological connotation of the term if it has multiple connotations.

Put 4 ~ next to your contribution so we know who added it. - tgalvez tgalvez Dec 8, 2009


The region of the brain, located in the medial temporal lobe, believed to play a key role in the emotions, such as fear and pleasure, in animals and humans


The amygdalae also are involved in the modulation of memory consolidation. Following any learning event, the long-term memory for the event is not instantaneously formed. Rather, information regarding the event is slowly assimilated into long-term storage over time (the duration of long-term memory storage can be life-long), a process referred to as memory consolidation, until it reaches a relatively permanent state.
external image amygdala_hippocampus_lateral_large1.jpgexternal image amygdala.jpg

Bottom-up Processing

Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk" processing and suggests that we attend to or perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element and then building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds.



Cognition is a term referring to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging and problem-solving. These are higher-level functions of the brain and encompass language, imagination, perception and planning.


Scientific term for "the process of thought". It is also the psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning.



A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. Distortion is usually unwanted, and often many methods are employed to minimize it in practice. Memory is subject to distortion due to the fact that "people remember in terms of meaning and what makes sense to them."

Jose Reyes

Emotional Memory

Emotion-focused Coping

Episodic Memory

Explicit Memory

False Memories

Fight or Flight

Flashbulb Memory


The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other mammals. It belongs to the limbic system and plays an important role in long term memory and spacial navigation.

external image hippocampus.png

Example (Case Study of HM)

The case study of H.M referred that he suffered serious head trauma which eventually led to him contracting seizures on a normal basis. The seizures were uncontrolled and lots of side effects followed. To solve this problem, H.M underwent surgery in order to remove his hippocampus. The hippocampus is a part of the brain located beneath the cerebral cortex. It stores memory temporarily, however after a certain period of time the memories are transferred to another part of the brain which is the neocortex.
Since H.M contracted seizures, surgeons suggested that his hippocampus be removed to prevent causing further damage. Using the invasive technique, surgeons performed open brain surgery and removed his hippocampus. After the surgical procedure occurred, and his hippocampus was removed, his motor learning ability was low. Even though his motor learning ability decreased, removing his hippocampus benefited because the amount of seizures that he had reduced significantly. As a result of this case study, researchers were able to understand the functions of the hippocampus.


Implicit Memory

Mental Representations

It is how one perceives the world differently compare to others, especially because people experiences different things throughout their cognitive process (language, memory, thinking, problem solving, perception and attention.

Ex: moral (what's right and what's wrong)


A mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts.

Multi-store Model of Memory


The cognitive process that interpret and organize the information from the senses such as smelling, sight, touch, taste, and hearing to produce significant experience of the world. Factors such as frequency, recency, and context can influence to interpret ambiguous events or objects.

Perception refers to our internal mental world, or what's going on inside your mind.
Example: When light enters the eye, the images that hit the retina turn out to be upside down, yet the way we perceive it is the image is right side up.

Problem-focused Coping

Procedural Memory

Reconstructive Memory


Schema/Schema Theory

Schema theory is a theory of learning most frequently associated with cognitive psychology and constructivism. Frequently employed by practictioners within education and psychology, it seeks to describe the basic mental processes whereby learning, which it defines as "reconfigureation of mental schemata" or simply "change", occurs.

Semantic Memory

Social Comparison Theory


Stereotypes occur when generalities are made about certain groups or categories of people or objects.
For example in cognitive psychology, when children are given a lot of things to remember, they generalize the the group in order to remember it without effort.


Top-down Processing

Top-Down Processing is also known as "large chunk" processing and states that we form perceptions (or focus our attention) by starting with the larger concept or idea (it can even be the concept or idea of an object) and then working our way down to the finer details of that concept or idea.

Read more: [[ Processing#ixzz1Bq9hS0wm]]

Working Memory Model